How much are you willing to pay for a ticket to the theater, a management class, or a counseling session? What should other patrons or clients pay for that same service? Does it matter to you whether or not the price that you pay covers the actual costs of receiving that service?
The rapid changes in the availability of government and philanthropic funds to pay for and subsidize services have led many nonprofits to examine their financial structure and realize that they can’t afford to continue to offer their services for free or nearly free. That model may have worked when the grants and contributions were available, but it doesn’t any more.
Nonprofits Assistance Fund offers workshops and webinars for staff and board members of nonprofits on financial management topics. We charge a fee for these training programs. What’s the right price for us to charge? Change the specifics and that same question is being raised at nonprofits of every size and scope. The answer, as with everything, is “it depends.” It depends on the purpose and goals, both programmatic and financial, of offering the service. Should prices be based only on costs, or does market demand factor in understanding what your clients or audience are willing to pay? Some of the fee-based services offered by nonprofits are more naturally based on market and competition. Others are much more sensitive to the ability of clients to pay. Theater tickets and tutoring for low-income students have different economic models.
When you start this analysis, it’s important to recognize that discussions about starting to charge a fee or making changes to prices often get caught up in emotions about money and organizational and personal values. When the suggestion of requiring a payment from clients first comes up, expect some of your colleagues to recoil in horror. Someone may even tell you that nonprofits are not legally allowed to charge for their services. (Please tell that to the two colleges that I’m currently supporting!) Talking about money is uncomfortable for many people, and offering services for no charge is very easy. Unless you have adequate subsidy dollars from contributions or other sources though, it’s not sustainable.
A recent post on the Stanford Social Innovation Review blog, Nine Tips to Better Nonprofit Pricing, provides a good start with the market approach. I highly recommend the article To Fee or Not to Fee?, published in the Summer 2004 issue of Nonprofit Quarterly for a thorough review of whether or not to charge a fee, how fees and program access can be aligned, and how to set prices. The article makes a strong case that charging fees improves the relationship with clients:
The most powerful argument in favor of charging fees is the discipline of the marketplace – that fees increase accountability to the people receiving services.
They include a summary of research that showed that fees may help clients buy-in to the services more and perceive greater benefits.
For most nonprofits, charging fees and setting prices will depend on a number of factors, but most of these can be addressed with operational capacity, program design, and differential pricing. This topic is worth a thorough review whether you currently charge fees or not as a part of long term financial planning and strategy.